Originally Published on July 15th, 2021

I like using HTMX in personal projects because its tiny and works without needing a full framework like ReactJS. Figured I'd make this public for anybody else that cares.

Common Key Events

They generally correspond to the ones in javascript except for... the enter button!

To use the enter button with HTMX, do the follow:

    <form action="" method="POST">
      <textarea cols="30" id="" name="command" rows="10">
        name="" type="submit" value=""
        hx-trigger="keydown[shiftKey&&keyCode==13] from:body"

Ta-Da! This will trigger on a "shift+enter" command.


These attributes can all be prefixed with data-hx-<method>

  Click Me

hx-<request> where request can be get, post, put, patch, or delete: signifies the AJAX request that will be made when the element is activated.

hx-trigger: this is how the ajax request on the element is triggered. Trigger types include:

  • "click": mouse click
  • "click[ctrlKey]": ctrlKey is an enclosed boolean javascript expression that, if true (e.g. ctrlKey is pressed while clicking with the mouse), will trigger.
  • "click[someFuncion()]": will trigger if the mouse is clicked while the inside global function returns true
  • "click[ctrlKey && shiftKey]": will trigger if the mouse is clicked while the ctrlKey and shiftKey is pressed at the same time.
  • (standard event modifiers are described below)
  • "keydown[key=='Enter']" to trigger on an Enter key

hx-target: jQuery style selector ("#id", ".class", etc.) that will be affected, replaced, or filled with the response from the ajax request.

hx-swap: what the ajax response will do on the hx-target. "outerHTML" will replace the element entirely while "innerHTML" will replace anything nested inside of it.

  • can take a settle:<time> where time is a time value such as "1s" or "500ms" to put a delay on the swap.

hx-confirm: shows a confirm dialog box before issuing the request

hx-disable: will disable the attribute is active (e.g. exists) on the element

Standard Event Modifiers for hx-trigger

These can be chained to have multiple (e.g. "keyup changed delay:1s")

  • once: triggers only once (e.g. first click)

changed: only triggers if the element has changed -- only useful in practice on an input form

delay:<time>: where time is a statement like "500ms" or "1s", will have a delay before the ajax request is made

throttle:<time>: where time is a statement like "500ms" or "1s", if triggered again the element will not trigger until the end of that time delay.

from:<css-selector>: will allow the ajax request to be triggered from another element. Can support some non-standard jquery selectors such as "document".

target:<css-selector>: will allow a child attribute to that target element with the corresponding css-selector to trigger the ajax request.

consume: if triggered, no other htmx requests, either direct or listening, will trigger on the parent element(s).

Exposes a javascript function called htmx.trigger().

Request Payloads

hx-encoding: changes the request encoding from "application/x-www-form-urlended" (default" to whatever this value is. Can be put on parent elements.

hx-request: changes various aspects of the request, each of which needs to be double-quoted (e.g. '\"timeout\":100')

* "timeout": in milliseconds
* "credentials": whether to include credentials in the request
* "noHeaders": wheter to send the request with no headers

hx-headers: JSON-style name:expression values for the header to be included with the AJAX request (e.g. hx-headers='{"Bearer Token X": "abc"}').

hx-include: include additional elements via a css-selector (e.g. "[name='email']" to get an input element with 'name="email"'.

hx-vals: takes a JSON format of data (e.g. hx-vals='{"key":"val"}') that will be submitted with the ajax request.

hx-push-url: whether to push the URL into the current browser -- can be "true" to append the hx-<request> value or a string representing the value to be pushed. Defaults to false.

CSS Transitions

<div id="parent"></div>

In the above section, htmx-settling class will be appended to the #parent tag. You could set CSS to create a transition. An example is below (though this example will look a bit ugly).

.htmx-settling {
  opacity: 0;

Django CBV Snippets

To help with processing requests taht go back and forth

From templates

  {{ csrf_token }}
  {{ form.as_p }}
  <input type="submit">

Below is an example using CBVs in Django. When a POST request is made to "PostForm", it will perform validation against LoginForm and issue either a success_reponse_template (on success) or error_response_template on failure. On a GET request, it returns the page with the form embedded.

class LoginForm(forms.Form):
    username = forms.CharField(required=True)
    password = forms.CharField(
        max_length=32, widget=forms.PasswordInput, required=True, min_length=6
class HtmxFormMixin(object):
def form_valid(self, form):
assert hasattr(self, "success_response_template") and hasattr(
self, "error_response_template"
), "No success_response_template and error_response_template configured"
if not form.is_valid():
return TemplateResponse(
context={"form_errors": form.errors},  # think this is correct...
context = {**form.cleaned_data}
return TemplateResponse(
using=None,  # template_engine
class PostForm(HtmxFormMixin, FormView):
# these are standard for FormView
template_name = "playground/login_form.html"
form_class = LoginForm
<span class="hljs-comment"># these are specific to the HtmxFormMixin</span>
<span class="hljs-attr">success_response_template</span> = <span class="hljs-string">"playground/login_reply.html"</span>
<span class="hljs-attr">error_response_template</span> = <span class="hljs-string">"playground/login_failure.html"</span>

<form hx-post="/post_form" hx-swap="outerHTML settle:1s" hx-target="this">
  {% csrf_token %}
  {{ form }}
  <input type="submit" value="Submit"/>